Introduction ::LiberiaBackground:Settlement of freed slaves from the US in what is today Liberia began in 1822; by 1847, the Americo-Liberians were able to establish a republic. William TUBMAN, president from 1944-71, did much to promote foreign investment and to bridge the economic, social, and political gaps between the descendants of the original settlers and the inhabitants of the interior. In 1980, a military coup led by Samuel DOE ushered in a decade of authoritarian rule. In December 1989, Charles TAYLOR launched a rebellion against DOE's regime that led to a prolonged civil war in which DOE was killed. A period of relative peace in 1997 allowed for elections that brought TAYLOR to power, but major fighting resumed in 2000. An August 2003 peace agreement ended the war and prompted the resignation of former president Charles TAYLOR, who faces war crimes charges in The Hague related to his involvement in Sierra Leone's civil war. After two years of rule by a transitional government, democratic elections in late 2005 brought President Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF to power. She subsequently won reelection in 2011 in a second round vote that was boycotted by the opposition and remains challenged to build Liberia's economy and reconcile a nation still recovering from 14 years of fighting. The United Nations Security Council in September 2012 passed Resolution 2066 which calls for a reduction of UN troops in Liberia by half by 2015, bringing the troop total down to fewer than 4000, and challenging Liberia's security sector to fill the gaps.Geography ::LiberiaLocation:Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Cote d'Ivoire and Sierra LeoneGeographic coordinates:6 30 N, 9 30 WArea:total: 111,369 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 104land: 96,320 sq kmwater: 15,049 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly larger than TennesseeLand boundaries:total: 1,585 kmborder countries: Guinea 563 km, Cote d'Ivoire 716 km, Sierra Leone 306 kmCoastline:579 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 200 nmClimate:tropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool to cold nights; wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showersTerrain:mostly flat to rolling coastal plains rising to rolling plateau and low mountains in northeastElevation extremes:lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 mhighest point: Mount Wuteve 1,380 mNatural resources:iron ore, timber, diamonds, gold, hydropowerLand use:arable land: 4.04%permanent crops: 1.62%other: 94.34% (2011)Irrigated land:21 sq km (2003)Total renewable water resources:232 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 0.13 cu km/yr (55%/37%/8%)per capita: 43.66 cu m/yr (2005)Natural hazards:dust-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara (December to March)Environment - current issues:tropical rain forest deforestation; soil erosion; loss of biodiversity; pollution of coastal waters from oil residue and raw sewageEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlandssigned, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life ConservationGeography - note:facing the Atlantic Ocean, the coastline is characterized by lagoons, mangrove swamps, and river-deposited sandbars; the inland grassy plateau supports limited agriculturePeople and Society ::LiberiaNationality:noun: Liberian(s)adjective: LiberianEthnic groups:Kpelle 20.3%, Bassa 13.4%, Grebo 10%, Gio 8%, Mano 7.9%, Kru 6%, Lorma 5.1%, Kissi 4.8%, Gola 4.4%, other 20.1% (2008 Census)Languages:English 20% (official), some 20 ethnic group languages few of which can be written or used in correspondenceReligions:Christian 85.6%, Muslim 12.2%, Traditional 0.6%, other 0.2%, none 1.4% (2008 Census)Population:3,989,703 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 127Age structure:0-14 years: 43.6% (male 876,696/female 863,873)15-24 years: 17.8% (male 345,357/female 363,746)25-54 years: 31.3% (male 622,806/female 624,707)55-64 years: 4.3% (male 84,252/female 87,250)65 years and over: 3% (male 60,288/female 60,728) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 84.9 %youth dependency ratio: 79.3 %elderly dependency ratio: 5.6 %potential support ratio: 17.8 (2013)Median age:total: 17.9 yearsmale: 17.7 yearsfemale: 18.1 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:2.56% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 27Birth rate:35.75 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 24Death rate:10.12 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 50Net migration rate:0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 93Urbanization:urban population: 48.2% of total population (2011)rate of urbanization: 3.43% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:MONROVIA (capital) 882,000 (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female15-24 years: 0.95 male(s)/female25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/femaletotal population: 1 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Mother's mean age at first birth:19.1 (2007 est.)Maternal mortality rate:770 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 8Infant mortality rate:total: 70.93 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 17male: 75.25 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 66.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 57.81 yearscountry comparison to the world: 197male: 56.2 yearsfemale: 59.47 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:4.92 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 21Contraceptive prevalence rate:11.4% (2007)Health expenditures:11.9% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 9Physicians density:0.01 physicians/1,000 population (2008)Hospital bed density:0.8 beds/1,000 population (2010)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 88% of populationrural: 60% of populationtotal: 73% of populationunimproved:urban: 12% of populationrural: 40% of populationtotal: 27% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 29% of populationrural: 7% of populationtotal: 18% of populationunimproved:urban: 71% of populationrural: 93% of populationtotal: 82% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:1.5% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 36HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:37,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 64HIV/AIDS - deaths:3,600 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 44Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: very highfood or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fevervectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow feverwater contact disease: schistosomiasisaerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa feveranimal contact disease: rabies (2013)Obesity - adult prevalence rate:4.8% (2008)country comparison to the world: 161Children under the age of 5 years underweight:20.4% (2007)country comparison to the world: 33Education expenditures:2.8% of GDP (2008)country comparison to the world: 147Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 60.8%male: 64.8%female: 56.8% (2010 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 11 yearsmale: 13 yearsfemale: 9 years (2000)Child labor - children ages 5-14:total number: 177,160percentage: 21 % (2007 est.)Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:total: 5.1%country comparison to the world: 133male: 3.4%female: 6.6% (2010)Government ::LiberiaCountry name:conventional long form: Republic of Liberiaconventional short form: LiberiaGovernment type:republicCapital:name: Monroviageographic coordinates: 6 18 N, 10 48 Wtime difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:15 counties; Bomi, Bong, Gbarpolu, Grand Bassa, Grand Cape Mount, Grand Gedeh, Grand Kru, Lofa, Margibi, Maryland, Montserrado, Nimba, River Cess, River Gee, SinoeIndependence:26 July 1847National holiday:Independence Day, 26 July (1847)Constitution:6 January 1986Legal system:mixed legal system of common law (based on Anglo-American law) and customary lawInternational law organization participation:accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdictionSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF (since 16 January 2006); Vice President Joseph BOAKAI (since 16 January 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of governmenthead of government: President Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF (since 16 January 2006); Vice President Joseph BOAKAI (since 16 January 2006)cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 11 October and 8 November 2011 (next to be held in 2017)election results: Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF reelected president; percent of vote, second round - Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF 90.7%, Winston TUBMAN 9.3%Legislative branch:bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (30 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve nine-year terms) and the House of Representatives (73 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)elections: Senate - last held on 11 October 2011 (next to be held in 2014); House of Representatives - last held on 11 October 2011 (next to be held in 2017)election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UP 10, NPP 6, CDC 3, APD 2, NUDP 2, LDP 1, LP 1, NDC 1, NDPL 1, independents 3; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UP 24, CDC 11, LP 7, NUDP 6, NDC 5, APD 3, NPP 3, MPC 2, LDP 1, LTP 1, NRP 1, independents 9Judicial branch:highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of a chief Justice and 4 associate justices)note - the Supreme Court has jurisdiction for all constitutional casesjudge selection and term of office: chief justice and associate justices appointed by the president of Liberia with consent of the Senate; judges can serve until age 70subordinate courts: judicial circuit courts; special courts including criminal, civil, labor, traffic; magistrate and traditional or customary courtsPolitical parties and leaders:Alliance for Peace and Democracy or APD [Marcus S. G. DAHN]Congress for Democratic Change or CDC [Geraldine DOE-SHERIFF]Liberia Destiny Party or LDP [Nathaniel BARNES]Liberty Party or LP [Isreal ARKINSAYAN]Liberia Transformation Party or LTP [Julius SUKU]Movement for Progressive Change or MPC [Simeon FREEMAN]National Democratic Coalition or NDC [Dew MAYSON]National Democratic Party of Liberia or NDPL [D. Nyandeh SIEH]National Patriotic Party or NPP [Theophilus C. GOULD]National Reformist Party or NRP [Maximillian T. W. DIABE]National Union for Democratic Progress or NUDP [Emmanuel LOMAX]Unity Party or UP [Varney SHERMAN]Political pressure groups and leaders:other: demobilized former military officersInternational organization participation:ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Jeremiah Congbeh SULUNTEHchancery: 5201 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011telephone:  (202) 723-0437FAX:  (202) 723-0436consulate(s) general: New YorkDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah R. MALACembassy: U.S. Embassy, P.O. Box 98, 502 Benson Street, Monroviamailing address: P.O. Box 98, Monroviatelephone:  77-677-7000FAX:  77-677-7370Flag description:11 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; a white five-pointed star appears on a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner; the stripes symbolize the signatories of the Liberian Declaration of Independence; the blue square represents the African mainland, and the star represents the freedom granted to the ex-slaves; according to the constitution, the blue color signifies liberty, justice, and fidelity, the white color purity, cleanliness, and guilelessness, and the red color steadfastness, valor, and fervornote: the design is based on the US flagNational symbol(s):white starNational anthem:name: ""All Hail, Liberia Hail!""lyrics/music: Daniel Bashiel WARNER/Olmstead LUCAnote: lyrics adopted 1847, music adopted 1860; the anthem's author would become the third president of LiberiaEconomy ::LiberiaEconomy - overview:Liberia is a low income country heavily reliant on foreign assistance for revenue. Civil war and government mismanagement destroyed much of Liberia's economy, especially the infrastructure in and around the capital, Monrovia. Many businesses fled the country, taking capital and expertise with them, but with the conclusion of fighting and the installation of a democratically-elected government in 2006, several have returned. Liberia has the distinction of having the highest ratio of direct foreign investment to GDP in the world. Richly endowed with water, mineral resources, forests, and a climate favorable to agriculture, Liberia had been a producer and exporter of basic products, primarily raw timber and rubber and is reviving those sectors. Local manufacturing, mainly foreign owned, had been small in scope. President JOHNSON SIRLEAF, a Harvard-trained banker and administrator, has taken steps to reduce corruption, build support from international donors, and encourage private investment. Embargos on timber and diamond exports have been lifted, opening new sources of revenue for the government and Liberia shipped its first major timber exports to Europe in 2010. The country reached its Heavily Indebted Poor Countries initiative completion point in 2010 and nearly $5 billion of international debt was permanently eliminated. This new status will enable Liberia to establish a sovereign credit rating and issue bonds. Liberia's Paris Club creditors agreed to cancel Liberia's debt as well. The IMF has completed the sixth review of Liberia's extended credit facility, bringing total disbursements to over $379 million. The African Development Bank approved a grant of $48 million in 2011 to support economic governance and competitiveness. Rebuilding infrastructure and raising incomes will depend on generous financial and technical assistance from donor countries and foreign investment in key sectors, such as infrastructure and power generation. The country has achieved high growth during 2010-12 due to favorable world prices for its commodities.GDP (purchasing power parity):$2.719 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 185$2.509 billion (2011 est.)$2.326 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$1.735 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:8.3% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 167.9% (2011 est.)6.1% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$700 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 224$600 (2011 est.)$600 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGross national saving:NA (2012 est.)-36.6% of GDP (2011 est.)-30.6% of GDP (2010 est.)GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 125.6%government consumption: 15.2%investment in fixed capital: 25%investment in inventories: 0%exports of goods and services: 27.5%imports of goods and services: -93.3%(2011 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 76.9%industry: 5.4%services: 17.7% (2002 est.)Agriculture - products:rubber, coffee, cocoa, rice, cassava (manioc), palm oil, sugarcane, bananas; sheep, goats; timberIndustries:rubber processing, palm oil processing, timber, diamondsIndustrial production growth rate:NA%Labor force:1.372 million (2007)country comparison to the world: 133Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 70%industry: 8%services: 22% (2000 est.)Unemployment rate:85% (2003 est.)country comparison to the world: 200Population below poverty line:80% (2000 est.)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.4%highest 10%: 30.1% (2007)Budget:revenues: $481.5 millionexpenditures: $522.3 million (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:27.8% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 106Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-2.4% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 93Public debt:2.6% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1550.4% of GDP (2011 est.)Fiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):6.9% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1758.5% (2011 est.)Commercial bank prime lending rate:13.52% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 5813.75% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$322.9 million (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 168$406.4 million (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of broad money:$664.1 million (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 173$560.2 million (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$520.9 million (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 169$475.3 million (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$NACurrent account balance:-$587.5 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 99-$754.3 million (2011 est.)Exports:$774.8 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 165$645.7 million (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:rubber, timber, iron, diamonds, cocoa, coffeeExports - partners:China 24.2%, US 15.4%, Spain 11.1%, Thailand 4.5%, Cote dIvoire 4.4%, Malaysia 4.1%, France 4% (2012)Imports:$2.275 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 160$2.068 billion (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:fuels, chemicals, machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods; foodstuffsImports - partners:South Korea 26.4%, China 24.1%, Singapore 23%, Japan 15.9% (2012)Debt - external:$348 million (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 179$447.6 million (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$3.574 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 89$2.912 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$201 million (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 84$201 million (31 December 2011 est.)Exchange rates:Liberian dollars (LRD) per US dollar -73.515 (2012 est.)72.227 (2011 est.)71.403 (2010 est.)Energy ::LiberiaElectricity - production:335 million kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 167Electricity - consumption:311.6 million kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 172Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 91Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 207Electricity - installed generating capacity:197,000 kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 155Electricity - from fossil fuels:100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 21Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 125Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 178Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 148Crude oil - production:0 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 155Crude oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 141Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 207Crude oil - proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 154Refined petroleum products - production:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 196Refined petroleum products - consumption:3,533 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 176Refined petroleum products - exports:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 192Refined petroleum products - imports:4,041 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 162Natural gas - production:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 154Natural gas - consumption:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 163Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 133Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 88Natural gas - proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 158Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:738,600 Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 174Communications ::LiberiaTelephones - main lines in use:3,200 (2011)country comparison to the world: 213Telephones - mobile cellular:2.03 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 140Telephone system:general assessment: the limited services available are found almost exclusively in the capital Monrovia; fixed-line service stagnant and extremely limited; telephone coverage extended to a number of other towns and rural areas by four mobile-cellular network operatorsdomestic: mobile-cellular subscription base growing and teledensity reached 50 per 100 persons in 2011international: country code - 231; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)Broadcast media:3 private TV stations; satellite TV service available; 1 state-owned radio station; about 15 independent radio stations broadcasting in Monrovia, with another 25 local stations operating in other areas; transmissions of 2 international broadcasters are available (2007)Internet country code:.lrInternet hosts:7 (2012)country comparison to the world: 228Internet users:20,000 (2009)country comparison to the world: 194Transportation ::LiberiaAirports:29 (2013)country comparison to the world: 117Airports - with paved runways:total: 2over 3,047 m: 11,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 271,524 to 2,437 m: 5914 to 1,523 m: 8under 914 m:14 (2013)Pipelines:oil 4 km (2013)Railways:total: 429 kmcountry comparison to the world: 115standard gauge: 345 km 1.435-m gaugenarrow gauge: 84 km 1.067-m gaugenote: most sections of the railways were inoperable because of damage suffered during the civil wars from 1980 to 2003, but many are being rebuilt (2008)Roadways:total: 10,600 kmcountry comparison to the world: 134paved: 657 kmunpaved: 9,943 km (2000)Merchant marine:total: 2,771country comparison to the world: 2by type: barge carrier 5, bulk carrier 662, cargo 143, carrier 2, chemical tanker 248, combination ore/oil 8, container 937, liquefied gas 92, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 526, refrigerated cargo 102, roll on/roll off 5, specialized tanker 10, vehicle carrier 27foreign-owned: 2,581 (Angola 1, Argentina 1, Australia 1, Belgium 1, Bermuda 4, Brazil 20, Canada 2, Chile 9, China 4, Croatia 1, Cyprus 9, Denmark 8, Egypt 3, Germany 1185, Gibraltar 5, Greece 505, Hong Kong 48, India 8, Indonesia 4, Israel 34, Italy 47, Japan 110, Latvia 5, Lebanon 1, Monaco 8, Netherlands 31, Nigeria 4, Norway 38, Poland 13, Qatar 5, Romania 3, Russia 109, Saudi Arabia 20, Singapore 22, Slovenia 7, South Korea 2, Sweden 12, Switzerland 25, Syria 1, Taiwan 94, Turkey 16, UAE 37, UK 32, UK 22, Ukraine 10, Uruguay 1, US 53) (2010)Ports and terminals:Buchanan, MonroviaMilitary ::LiberiaMilitary branches:Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL): Army, Navy, Air ForceMilitary service age and obligation:18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 815,826females age 16-49: 828,484 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 524,243females age 16-49: 544,349 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 36,585female: 38,516 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:0.8% of GDP (2011)country comparison to the world: 147Transnational Issues ::LiberiaDisputes - international:although civil unrest continues to abate with the assistance of 18,000 UN Mission in Liberia peacekeepers, as of January 2007, Liberian refugees still remain in Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, Sierra Leone, and Ghana; Liberia, in turn, shelters refugees fleeing turmoil in Cote d'Ivoire; despite the presence of over 9,000 UN forces in Cote d'Ivoire since 2004, ethnic conflict continues to spread into neighboring states who can no longer send their migrant workers to Ivorian cocoa plantations; UN sanctions ban Liberia from exporting diamonds and timberRefugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 58,710 (Cote d'Ivoire) (2013)IDPs: undetermined (civil war from 1990-2004; unclear how many have found durable solutions; many dwell in slums in Monrovia) (2012)Trafficking in persons:current situation: Liberia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; most victims are Liberian and are exploited within the country, where they are forced into domestic servitude, begging, prostitution, street vending, agricultural work, and diamond mining; a small number of Liberian men, women, and children are trafficked to Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, and the US, while trafficking victims are brought to Liberia from neighboring West African countries, including Sierra Leone, Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and Nigeriatier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Liberia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government has increased its anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts and achieved its first conviction under its 2005 anti-trafficking law; the government has failed to make adequate efforts to identify and protect trafficking victims and has not adopted or implemented the standard operating procedures for assisting victims finalized by the anti-trafficking secretariat in 2012; the referral of victims to NGOs for protective services is inconsistent (2013)Illicit drugs:transshipment point for Southeast and Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine for the European and US markets; corruption, criminal activity, arms-dealing, and diamond trade provide significant potential for money laundering, but the lack of well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a major money-laundering center"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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